Each vitamin has its own tasks, which allow the body to work correctly and smoothly, to increase resistance to diseases. Vitamin B1 is necessary for energy, complete metabolic processes. A useful substance in the body is not produced, does not accumulate. Every day, a person needs to get vitamin B1 from foods or with supplements.
Vitamin B1: general information and properties
Vitamin B1 is a sulfur-containing, water-soluble compound that is found in almost every cell. The substance is colorless, the smell is pronounced, resembles yeast. It is of great importance for maintaining the right level of energy and a good metabolism.
Another name for vitamin B1 is thiamine. It has a beneficial effect on the work of the whole organism:
- reduces the harmful effects of alcohol and nicotine;
- strengthens the immune system;
- positively affects the functioning of the brain;
- slows down aging;
- improves blood formation;
- increases stress resistance.
In ampoules, vitamin B1 is called thiamine. It is used to get rid of vitamin deficiency when eating through a probe, hemodialysis, renal failure.
Vitamin B1 is a rather complex compound in the formula – C 12 H 17 N 4 OS.
Knowing the physicochemical properties will save the benefits of a valuable substance.
- well soluble in fats, water;
- insoluble in alcohol;
- when heated, is destroyed;
- easily digestible, but the presence of diseases of the digestive system reduces the absorption of vitamin several times;
- the action of direct sunlight makes thiamine inactive;
- exceeding the daily dose of vitamin (10 mg / day) is not dangerous, the excess is excreted by the excretory system.
An insufficient supply of this beneficial compound will be immediately noticeable. Disruption of all internal systems will begin, for example, constipation, shortness of breath, headache. This is a real indicator of the great importance of vitamin B1 for the body.
The active form of vitamin B1 is necessary for the body to fully exist, because it is involved in the basic processes of life.
Benefit and harm
Thiamine (vitamin B1) performs many functions in the body, it can not be replaced, you need to ensure constant intake.
Why do you need vitamin B1:
- reduces the negative impact on the body of alcohol-containing drinks, nicotine;
- strengthens the immune system, promotes the work of internal systems, the thyroid gland;
- positively affects the functioning of the nervous system;
- actively involved in hematopoiesis;
- promotes carbohydrate metabolism in the brain, which provides a good mood, high stress resistance;
- activates the synthesis of fatty acids, the main role of which is to protect the liver and gall bladder from the formation of stones;
- slows down the aging process at the cellular level;
- reduces inflammation of the skin, has a beneficial effect on the condition of the mucous layer, is used in the treatment of eczema, burns, psoriasis;
- reduces cholesterol;
- eliminates motion sickness.
What is useful thiamine is known, but it can be harmful. When injected, there is a risk of allergies. On the skin, it will be manifested by skin rashes, redness, and itching. In severe cases, anaphylactic shock is possible. Vitamin B1, when used correctly, only works for the benefit of the body.
Thiamine functions in the body
Vitamin B1 has a variety of properties for the body, due to its high activity. He takes part in all biochemical processes of life.
Vitamin B1 Functions:
- participates in energy metabolism;
- transmits nerve impulses;
- has an analgesic effect;
- accelerates hair growth;
- contributes to the work of the nervous system and heart;
- participates in the transfer of genetic information in cell division.
Complex amino acid conversion processes cannot occur without a high level of thiamine, which is why the body needs vitamin B1. For full functioning, you need to provide yourself with thiamine through foods or take a vitamin in the form of medications.
The daily requirement of the body
The need for vitamin B1 per day corresponds to its costs to maintain all processes in the body, because thiamine does not accumulate in reserve.
Daily intake of vitamin B1 (according to the World Health Organization):
- for children – from 0.5 to 1.7 mg;
- for women – 1.3 – 2.2 mg;
- for men – 1.6 – 2.5 mg.
During pregnancy, a woman’s need for thiamine increases to 2.5 mg / day. The lack of a beneficial compound increases the risk of disturbances in the development of the fetal nervous system.
A healthy person who adheres to a balanced diet receives the thiamine norm necessary for maintaining vital activity from products.
Signs of deficiency
Vitamins are constantly ingested from food. Normal nutrition allows you to provide yourself with useful substances, so a thiamine deficiency is not very common. Frequent use of sugar, salt, coffee, alcoholic beverages destroy and remove vitamin B1 from the body. Laxatives and diuretics also work. For this reason, there is a need for additional intake of vitamin B1.
An insufficient amount of vitamin B1 negatively affects the functioning of the body. Symptoms of deficiency:
- itching on the skin;
- visual impairment;
- loss of appetite, sudden weight loss;
- numbness of the limbs;
- mental changes in the form of depression, irritability, apathy;
- digestion problems, diarrhea;
- lack of coordination;
- exacerbation of chronic skin diseases;
- acute heart failure;
- muscle weakness;
- increased heart rate even at rest;
- decrease in short-term memory.
All these conditions will be indications for the appointment of vitamin B1 in the form of drugs. The complete lack of vitamin A leads to a severe pathology called “take-take”. It consists in severe depletion of the body, the accumulation of dangerous acids, and a violation of carbohydrate metabolism.
Vitamin B1 is not produced in the body. Ensuring its uninterrupted supply reduces the risk of deficiency.
Symptoms of Excess
Elevated levels of vitamin B1 (thiamine) are rare. This water-soluble compound is rapidly excreted through the kidneys. With the introduction of the substance in injections, an excess of vitamin can be provoked. In this case, allergies, fever, decrease in blood pressure, muscle contraction will be observed. With personal intolerance to vitamin preparations, rashes with redness and burning will appear on the skin.
How to increase Vitamin B1
To increase the thiamine content, you need to revise your diet and take a useful element in the form of a drug.
Foods – Vitamin B1 Sources
Natural products contain a lot of thiamine, the maximum amount is found in nuts and cereals. Their constant use will increase the level of vitamin B1.
A large amount of thiamine is found in the following products:
- food yeast;
- cedar nuts;
- Brown rice;
- sunflower seeds;
- green peas;
- chicken liver;
- black Eyed Peas;
Vegetables do not contain a lot of thiamine, its amount in products decreases with heat treatment, adding salt. In fruits, this vitamin is not enough.
A doctor should prescribe thiamine in the form of drugs. The release form can be different – tablets (for dissolution in the stomach), tablets in the shell (for dissolution in the intestine), a solution for injection.
With the introduction of vitamin A, one should start with small dosages and observe the reaction. With good tolerance, introduce the volumes of the drug recommended by the doctor. Intramuscularly inject deeply, intravenously administered slowly, rarely administered subcutaneously. The course is from 10 to 30 sessions.
How to digest
Vitamin B1 is well absorbed in the absence of coffee, alcohol, nicotine in the body. For children, it will be better to get thiamine from fresh products that have not been cooked.
Injections with vitamin A are prescribed for urgent help to the brain, muscles, in case of impaired heart function. Be sure to undergo a course of treatment to restore the functions of the internal organs.
Dosage form of thiamine
Thiamine is used in various dosage forms. For children, vitamins B1 are used in capsules, tablets. Injections (injections) are also prescribed. For this, vitamins are produced in ampoules for intravenous, intramuscular, subcutaneous administration. The formula of the drug allows you to use different ways of delivering the substance to the body.
Rules for taking thiamine
Thiamine is used based on daily requirement. When absorbed, the maximum dosage is not processed in the intestine. The rest of the substance will be excreted with feces. The instructions for use indicate the methods and standard dosages for taking vitamin B1.
The drug is administered orally in the form of tablets and capsules and by injection (intramuscularly, intravenously, subcutaneously). For the use of vitamin B1 in ampoules, the instruction gives instructions on the characteristics of the introduction of the substance.
Dosage for adults
The reception regimen and dosage should be prescribed by the doctor, based on the individual characteristics of the patient. The standard regimen for taking thiamine tablets for adults in treatment is 10 mg per dose up to five times a day.
For prevention, the reception regimen remains the same, but the dosage is reduced to 5 mg per reception. The benefits of vitamin B1 will be felt within a few days after the start of the intake. Duration of admission is not less than a month.
Reception in childhood
In the body of children, vitamin B1 is well absorbed. Doses depend on age and health status. At 3 years, 5 mg is prescribed to be taken every other day, up to 8 years – 5 mg three times a day. Duration of admission is 1 month.
Exceeding Recommended Dose
An overdose of vitamin B1 is rare. Thiamine is water-soluble, therefore, it is rapidly excreted from the body. Only with the introduction of a substance in the form of injections is it possible to exceed the dosage. Symptoms of excess vitamin B1 will be an increase in temperature, a decrease in blood pressure, allergic rashes on the body.
It is better not to carry out the diagnosis yourself, but to call a doctor. The treatment is symptomatic. When thiamine is excreted in the urine, the intensity of the symptoms will decrease.
Drug and Drug Interactions
Some medicines and products can enhance or decrease the beneficial qualities of vitamin B1. Before you begin enriching the body with thiamine, you need to study their compatibility. Then it will be possible to achieve positive results.
Vitamin B1 Compatibility with Medicines:
- Magnesium – helps to activate thiamine. Vitamin B1 should be consumed with sesame seeds, nuts, cocoa, shrimp, dried apricots containing magnesium.
- The simultaneous intake of vitamins B1, B2 and C enhances the overall effect.
- Thiamine reduces the symptoms of vitamin B5 deficiency – numbness of the extremities, frequent pulse, dizziness, general weakness, decreased sex drive.
- Slows down the activation of thiamine vitamin B6.
- Vitamin B12 increases allergic manifestations to thiamine.
- The combined use of antibiotics and thiamine is not recommended: the effectiveness of both substances is markedly reduced.
- With the simultaneous use of diuretics and vitamin B1, hypovitaminosis develops. Thiamine is actively excreted by the kidneys.
Vitamin B1 is adversely affected by certain foods. Tobacco, caffeine, salt, alcohol interfere with the absorption of thiamine in the intestines. It is important to consider compatibility during the urgent administration of a substance or in the treatment of chronic pathologies with vitamin B1.